Как я и предполагал, истерия с нитратами — это очередная на*баловка из серии канцерогенности ДДТ, вреда ГМО и пандемии "птичьего гриппа".
Bryan N. S. et al. Ingested nitrate and nitrite and stomach cancer risk: an updated review //Food and Chemical Toxicology. – 2012. – Т. 50. – №. 10. – С. 3646-3665.
New information has clearly established that nitrite and nitrate per se are important biological compounds and that nitrosation is an important feature of NO metabolism in human physiology including many nitrosation reactions. S-nitrosation may be particularly important to the physiological effects of NO and nitrite. Carcinogenic N-nitrosation requires conditions beyond those usually found in normal metabolism. These extraordinary conditions were the focus of concern for exposure of populations to nitrate and nitrite before their role in overall nitrogen oxide metabolism became better understood. |
The toxicological and epidemiological evidence on carcinogenicity of nitrate and nitrite share the feature of including studies of variable quality and ability to directly answer questions regarding carcinogenicity. Failure to take into account the strengths and limitations of different groups of studies may lead to conclusions, as exemplified by the 2006 evaluation and classification performed by IARC, which based on additional subsequent studies are no longer supportable. Both in epidemiology and animal carcinogenicity, results of studies of low quality tended to support the hypothesis of a carcinogenic effect of nitrate or nitrite intake, while the results of better designed and conducted studies did not. The evidence from animal studies essentially relies on the NTP bioassay study, which provided only ‘‘equivocal evidence’’ for the carcinogenicity of sodium nitrite in the forestomach of female mice, and ‘‘no evidence’’ of carcinogenicity in any other organs of both sexes of mice and rats. This has been supported by ten subsequent smaller studies where no carcinogenicity in nitrite-only exposed animals was observed.
The results of prospective epidemiologic studies, in particular those of cohort studies reported since 2006, do not consistently suggest an increased risk of stomach cancer from ingested nitrate, nitrite or N-nitrosamines. Future epidemiologic studies should account for the likely confounding or effect modifying impact of H. pylori infection, Vitamin C and salt intake. In addition, associations between nitrate and nitrite and stomach cancer should be stratified by cardia and non-cardia tumors. Overall, the hypothesis of a risk of cancer in humans from ingested nitrate, nitrite and Nnitrosamines, which was proposed on the basis of low-quality studies conducted several decades ago, has not been confirmed in more recent, better-designed animal and epidemiological studies.
The current scientific evidence indicates that usual dietary exposure and endogenous formation of nitrate and nitrite do not entail an increased risk of stomach cancer.
Weitzberg E., Lundberg J. O. Novel aspects of dietary nitrate and human health //Annual review of nutrition. – 2013. – Т. 33. – С. 129-159.
Nitrate is considered one of the few potentially harmful substances in vegetables, and massive and costly regulatory efforts have been required t o limit its exposure in humans. However, this long-held view is now being disputed by scientists from an emerging field of research that shows potentially beneficial effects of dietary nitrate based on its ability to promoteNO - like bioactivity via a nitrate nitrite-NO pathway. Recent studies indicate a physiological role of nitrate, and dietary intervention studies in humans show promising effects on cardiovascular and metabolic functions. The debate is ongoing, and it can be settled only by solid future research , including epidemiological studies with respect to dietary nitrate, accompanied by proper nutritional intervention studies in humans
Hord N. G., Tang Y., Bryan N. S. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits //The American journal of clinical nutrition. – 2009. – Т. 90. – №. 1. – С. 1-10.
Taken together, the data considered here support the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (66) that benefits of vegetable and fruit consumption outweigh any perceived risk of developing cancer from the consumption of nitrate and nitrite in these foods. Note that the nitrate and nitrite concentrations measured in our convenience sample may differ from samples taken from more disparate geographic locations. We conclude that the data on nitrate and nitrite contents of vegetables and fruit bolster the strength of existing evidence to recommend their consumption for health benefits. |
Despite the demonstration of physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components have received little attention (18). The questionable practice of causal inference with regard to the etiologic roles of dietary nitrates and nitrites in methemoglobinemia and cancer has exerted a detrimental effect on research supporting the health benefits of nitrate- and nitritecontaining foods. This has occurred despite the observed benefits of nitrate and nitrite in medical therapeutics (102). Indeed, data from observational epidemiologic and human clinical studies support the hypothesis that nitrates and nitrites of plant origin play essential physiologic roles in supporting cardiovascular health and gastrointestinal immune function. We support the recent call for a multidisciplinary and systematic review of the biological consequences of dietary nitrate and nitrite consumption (84). The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.